IoT and 5G offer the manufacturing industry a way to upgrade services

The Internet of Things, where everything around us is being digitized, offers opportunities. Already you can turn on the thermostat remotely or see who’s at your door at any time – even if you’re far from home. Plants in greenhouses are automatically watered when they need it. Anchors with sensors hold our dikes together and warn if the water tension and pressure changes. No longer does the dike reeve have to visit all the dikes. Much more is possible thanks to the future 5G network and everything will become connected to everything.

Els van de Kar, associate professor of Business Service Innovation at Fontys University of Applied Sciences Venlo, and Etienne Scholl, Domain Sales Manager at Ericsson, explain in a microlecture what the Internet of Things (IoT) and the 5G network can do for e.g. the manufacturing industry. This is where the manufacturing industry is going to make a difference. Not because of the products, but because of the service that they will be able to provide, says Van de Kar.

Smart Servitization

“That’s what you call a difficult word: servitization.” The Business Service Innovation research group is exploring how new technologies such as IoT, Big Data and 5G can provide a competitive advantage so that manufacturing companies can remain profitable. Fontys is not alone in this: The Netherlands has set itself the goal of having the most flexible and best digitally connected production network in Europe by 2021. This can be read in the Implementation Agenda 2018-2021, drawn up by the Smart Industry platform, FME, the Ministry of Economic Affairs and Climate Policy, the Dutch Chamber of Commerce, the Koninklijke Metaalunie and TNO.

Smart Servitization © Fontys Hogescholen

Together with LIOF, Vodafone, Ericsson, Zuyd University of Applied Sciences and Regitel, the lectorate forms a project group that is examining how far Limburg’s small and medium-sized enterprises and the manufacturing industry have come in terms of IoT. Van de Kar: “In other words, what about their level of IoT maturity? That’s a slow process in Limburg.” Students came by for an interview after companies had responded to a digital survey. While a company had responded digitally that it was well on its way when it came to IoT, it became clear from the interviews that most companies are only in the early stages of their implementation of IoT. “These trajectories take time and I assume that this will take a few steps at a time.”

“Consumers are already wireless, but factories have only just started”, Scholl continues. “The industry still uses a lot of machines that are connected by cable, regardless of how wireless technologies make factories more flexible. This is also down to the fact that this technology is completely new. It is unclear how it is going to progress. You have to run production in industry, and if your factory is shut down as a result of a malfunction, it will just cost you money. It is important that the technology is stable. They know that cables are stable.”

Speed vs latency

Aside from stability, speed is also important. “If we look at 4G, that’s not fast enough for all industries. 5G will be 20 times faster.” 5G also has an advantage for robotics. As there is always a delay in data that you send via the network, Scholl explains. “We call that ‘latency’. The delay is twenty-five to thirty milliseconds with 4G, whereas 5G reduces it to one millisecond. Which is necessary for self-driving cars, for one thing.”

The level of accuracy of 5G is greater. Scholl: “This is good when it comes to aircraft maintenance, for instance. Lots of tools are needed for that. With a single push of a button, the system checks whether all the material and tools that have been used are back in the right place. It’s terrible to think that a screwdriver might have gotten stuck in one of the engines.”

Many companies are already using wifi on the path to 5G, says Scholl. “Wifi works when there are only a few users. Compare it to a space where more and more people are coming. You start talking louder and louder and at some point you have to talk so loudly that you can no longer hear each other.” Scholl cites an example from the Rotterdam port where automated cranes load and unload container ships from China. “That went well using wifi until boats passed by that also had wifi networks, then the system kept dropping out.”

Data

Plenty of options and advantages, yet the story behind the data is rooted in all these smart applications, Van de Kar goes on to say. Who owns the data, where is the data, what to do with all that data? When Van de Kar asks who would like to be connected to the rest of the world through their bicycle, house and car, one German student responds: “Not me! They’ ll be able to see into my brain in a second. And I enjoy taking care of my car and bike myself.”

There are more reservations. Afterwards, a Dutch fourth-year commercial economics student admits that he is skeptical. “I see it as a great gift, at least that’s also how companies present IoT and 5G. But there is no way back, I think. It seems as if companies will be able to offer cheaper services because of digitization, but I don’t see that happening quite yet. And you are missing out on the social aspect, I’m afraid that it will make society even more individualistic.”

Andreas Zosholl, a German international business student who is currently completing his studies at Groba, sees mostly opportunities. ” This introduction was very interesting for me personally. Not so much for my graduation thesis. With that, I’m mainly concerned with sensors and internet connections for the machines. 5G is still a step too far for Groba.”

Don’t forget the hardware, you can’t build a smart city solely on dreams

The annual Smart City Expo World Congress is taking place in Barcelona. It is the largest in its field with 25,000 visitors. The motto of this edition is Cities made of dreams. Nevertheless, all those dreams also involve a whole lot of hardware.

Dreams are wonderful. But 5G doesn’t just happen, as the people who are responsible for laying the infrastructure are well aware of. “All those 5G antennas that will soon provide super-fast connections will also have to be connected to fiber-optic cables below the ground,” says Petra Claessen at the Smart City congress in Barcelona, She’s the director of BTG, the Dutch branch association for ICT. “In order to avoid having to break open the sidewalk three times in the future, a law must be quickly put in place to ensure that the mobile network operators will share their infrastructure.”

The BTG has come up with a uniform standard that should ultimately lead to legislation, but it is hasn’t gotten that far yet. The three major providers -KPN, T-Mobile and VodafoneZiggo – are currently all building their own transmission masts. Given that 5G requires many more masts, the BTG acknowledges that this will be a never-ending task. “The operators should be able to share the costs in the future.”

Not solely on dreams

Smart Cities are fabulous. However cities can’t be built solely on dreams, as they all know at the BTG. “This also requires a lot of hardware. Lampposts of the future will become multifunctional. In addition to light, there will also be Wi-Fi, and possibly power for electric cars. At the moment, the population is insufficiently informed about what is coming their way. Smart cities are going to matter a lot as far as infrastructure is concerned.”

Also read: Don’t develop technologies which won’t solve any real problems

According to Irene van Bruines (from the brand new procurement platform Smart City Plaza) a lot of missionary work also needs to be done in the municipalities. “In a certain municipality, they have already come a long way with smart street fixtures. But in another municipality, a public servant put it quite bluntly: ‘I don’t want any gimmicks on my patch.’ In that respect, there is still so much that has to be done.”

Bruines, who has a long career in construction and infrastructure, now makes it very easy for municipal purchasers by providing a complete, independent, overview of products for smart cities through her platform. From sensors to charging stations and from solar-powered rubbish bins to ultra-quiet wind turbines, Smart City Plaza offers it all. The only thing municipalities have to do is subscribe to this gift guide for smart city officials.

Rotterdam designs a modular streetlamp

The city officials of Rotterdam no longer need to be told anything more about smart cities. It’ s buzzing with ambition in the Maasstad, which this year almost clinched the ‘Innovation Capital of Europe‘ award. The city aims to be a model digital city by 2025.

One of the projects that fit in with this, was the design of a smart lamppost. The city has developed CENT-R, a modular lamppost, together with start-up Lightwell, the Da Vinci College in Dordrecht, Rotterdam University of Applied Sciences and the manufacturer Valmont. The CENT-R (Connective Energy Network Tool – Rotterdam) prototype was finished just in time for the expo in Barcelona and was unveiled there. In addition to 5G, electric charging, cameras and lighting, the lamppost can also be retrofitted to accommodate any future innovations. Three smart poles will be put into use in the Rotterdam district of Reyeroord towards the end of next January.

Smart City Expo: The rest of the world wants to know how the Netherlands innovates

The Smart City Expo World Congress takes place in Barcelona, with 25,000 visitors the largest in this field. Over 250 of them come from the Netherlands. Report from the Holland Pavillion.

It is a coming and going of international delegations at the booth where the Netherlands give a dazzling show showing how Dutch municipalities and companies are at the forefront in smart and green mobility and in making cities resilient to climate change. Whether it concerns KPN’s 5G field lab on the Automotive Campus, the technology with which engineering firm Sweco will be able to give priority to electric cars at traffic lights and thus make them more economical, Dutch municipalities and entrepreneurs are in no way inferior to other countries in terms of innovation.

Read moreSmart City Expo: The rest of the world wants to know how the Netherlands innovates

TU Eindhoven spin-off MaxWaves shows new antenna technology for extremely fast 5G and 6G

Whole series of devices connected simultaneously and without loss of function; downloading complete films in seconds; autonomous cars: the extremely fast 5G network should make all this possible. The problem is that the fastest form of 5G requires very fast wireless connections that now only work over short distances. This is why a new antenna technology has been developed at the Eindhoven University of Technology that allows this fast form of 5G – and its successor 6G – to communicate over long distances. Recently, the first practical test was successfully carried out from the roof of two buildings on the Eindhoven campus.

The next generation of wireless networks, 5G, is expected to be rolled out commercially by 2020. This is the first phase, with relatively low frequencies, only slightly faster than 4G. But: the higher the frequency, the more data you can send. That is why the world is also working towards a form of 5G that works at much higher frequencies – 26 GHz to be precise. Then the capacity increases by a factor of one hundred, which is necessary for autonomous cars, for example.

The enormous increase in data speed in 5G requires that the wireless connections between base stations also have enormous capacity. That is why even higher frequencies of 80 GHz will be used for this purpose. “The problem with sending signals at these high frequencies is that they are only strong enough at very short distances,” says Bart Smolders, professor of telecommunications at the Eindhoven University of Technology.

Electronically coupled antennas

This is why for years already, work has been going on at the university on antennas that enable signals at these high frequencies to be transmitted over longer distances. The technology uses a series of electronically coupled antennas, which electronically direct the radio beams in the right direction, combined with a satellite dish that focuses the energy and increases the distance. This technology has been further developed within TU Eindhoven-spin-off MaxWaves into a demonstrator, the first step towards a prototype.

“The antennas bundle multiple radio waves into a very narrow, strong radio signal, comparable to a laser beam”, says Ronis Maximidis, PhD candidate and co-founder of MaxWaves. According to Maximidis, this enables a 100 times greater signal strength, which means that a five times greater distance can be achieved than with the current techniques.

The high-frequency signals require that the transmitting and receiving antennas are directed exactly towards each other, in all weather conditions. Maximidis: “Our system electronically aligns the antenna beams, so that the dishes containing the antennas do not have to move mechanically.”

Live demo

The system was recently tested in practice for the first time. From the roof of two buildings on the campus of the Eindhoven University of Technology, a connection has been successfully established with the antennas, about 700 metres in length. “With this test, we have shown that our concept works outside the lab. The next step is now to build a prototype. Our goal is to provide the whole world with 5G and 6G, even in the most remote areas”, says Maximidis.

Best read: Will we be using wireless internet via Li-Fi, Wi-Fi or something else?

Once again the articles about the pros and cons of driving electric cars scored the highest this week. However, since we don’t want to discuss the same subject every week in the ‘Best read’ section, we would like to talk about the subject that came in fourth place. This was about an experiment whereby journalists in Hamburg football are not communicating via Wi-Fi, but via Li-Fi, which is a type of wireless internet that transmits data via lighting. This is a rare opportunity for readers to be reminded that the inventor of Wi-Fi is a Dutchman – the Amsterdammer Cees Links. At the time, Links liked the abbreviation ‘Wi-Fi’ mainly because it reminded him of his beloved ‘Bifi’ snack sausage. But back to the subject: assistant professor of computer technology Marco Zuniga Zamalloa at TU Delft on the question of whether Li-Fi will oust the now old, familiar Wi-Fi.

Last week there was a demonstration in The Hague in protest of the alleged dangers of radiation from the radio waves in the upcoming 5G. Is Li-Fi a better option?

“For the sake of clarity: 5G is a collective term for multiple technologies that we will be able to use for wireless internet. 5G stands for ‘fifth generation’. So a technology such as Li-Fi, which uses light, could, in principle, also fall under this category. To come back to your question: the disadvantage of Wi-Fi is that we have to use the radio frequency spectrum. That’s already packed. So how much space is actually still available on there in order to be able to transmit even more data? We know what happens when it gets too crowded there. For example, if everyone wants to call at the same time on their mobile phone. In that case, the network becomes overloaded and it will not work properly. You don’t have that problem if you start using lighting as a means of transmitting data. This is because the light spectrum is still completely open. And you don’t need to pay out millions in order to be able to use that empty space of the light spectrum for transmitting data. Because there are no rules for that yet. You do have to do that when using radio waves.”

So, it’s bound to be Li-Fi?

That remains to be seen. Light also has disadvantages. With today’s lamps, you are able to emit light signals, whereas in the past that was not possible with ordinary tungsten light bulbs. But the question is how efficiently you will then use your energy. Suppose the sun is shining and you don’t have to turn on any lamps to light up your house or office. In order to send data wirelessly, you still have to switch on a light. That costs you extra energy which you would not have otherwise used if you had kept on using Wi-Fi radio waves. Another drawback is that anything that blocks light – a wall, a door or a curtain in front of the window – also blocks your data. Just like sound waves, the light can’t go straight through everything. However, this problem can be solved because you will be able to transmit data via receivers in a room where you are located. One of the major advantages of Li-Fi is that is able to guarantee the privacy of your data. as this data cannot leave the room via light due to physical barriers. This might be an added bonus for hospitals, for example.”

Is there another wireless system under development which could compete with Wi-Fi and Li-Fi?

“There is LoRaWAN, also known as LPWAN. That’s an abbreviation for Low-power wide-area network. This is used for transmitting small bundles of data, for instance from sensors that are suspended in outdoor areas. The batteries of these systems, which are used for ‘the internet of things’, are only active when data is being transmitted. They, therefore, require very little energy. This means they can last up to ten years if not longer. The situation with your phone is very different: the battery is being used all the time and it runs out faster. It is impossible to say which wireless internet technology will eventually dominate. I think we’re going to use all three of them alongside each other. I don’t think that Wi-Fi will disappear as a result of Li-Fi. We’ve been using radio waves for so long that the basis of our infrastructure is fully geared towards it.”

German football reporters equipped with Li-Fi technology

On Monday in The Hague hundreds of people protested against the planned 5G network. The high level of radiation could have negative consequences on health. However, there is a new technology on the market that uses light waves instead of radio waves, which is not harmful, but much faster, safer and more stable than the current Wifi signal.

In recent months Signify, formerly Philips Lighting, has rolled out some sixty pilots all over the world. Now the new communication technology is taking shape: journalists visiting the press center in the HSV stadium in Hamburg will have the opportunity to use LiFi technology. Signify installed LED lighting equipped with LiFi technology in the football club. In 2024, there will be the European football championships, the EUROCUP. A fast, safe and well-functioning internet is therefore very important so that journalists are able to report on the competitions as well as possible.

Infrared light waves

Signify has installed 84 special Philips LED lamps. 8 of these lamps have a built-in Trulifi 6002, a transmitting and receiving device. This device emits infrared light waves which provide an internet connection with a speed of 150 Mbps.

Journalists who report on the matches are given a USB access key that they can plug into their laptop. This USB stick receives the LiFI signal and sends it back to the led lamp. The entire LiFi system is encrypted. In addition, light waves cannot pass through walls, making it even safer.

Roel Dekoninck from Signify: “Trulifi offers very reliable, secure and fast wireless communication that makes use of the existing and future lighting infrastructure. The technology is aimed at professional markets such as banks, nuclear installations, offices, catering, retail, industry and hospitals. LiFi is complementary to WiFi, yet is also an excellent alternative for places where WiFi is a problem, such as in subways and trains.”

Robust connection

Signify has a variety of commercial Trulifi systems including Trulifi 6013. This uses colored light that generates a solid and secure internet connection of 250 Mbps. As it is now getting very crowded on the radio waves, the advantage of this technology is that LiFi offers the capacity for a dependable bandwidth.

 

Aircision ready to test its laser-based 5G communications technology at the High Tech Campus Eindhoven

Aircision, a deep-tech venture from the Eindhoven-based start-up accelerator HighTechXL, is ready to test its laser-based 5G communications technology. This will be the first test of Free Space Optics (FSO) as a viable link for 5G networks, and will entail beaming data between buildings on High Tech Campus Eindhoven.

Aircision provides both communication and metrology solutions, using laser technology. Its communications system solution is based on line-of-sight laser technology which has the potential to increase network connectivity in areas where expansion may be problematic. This is particularly effective in the rollout of 5G, which will require a ramp-up in the number of cell towers and masts; in instances where optical fibre connections are not feasible, laser-beam technology can be a solution.

Deep-Tech solutions

The announcement was made at Beyond Tech, a one-day start-up event hosted by HighTechXL at the High Tech Campus. Aircision was one of three start-ups from HighTechXL’s technology-transfer collaboration with CERN that pitched their business case to the audience.

Guus Frericks, HighTechXL Beyond Tech (c) IO

(See also: HighTechXL hackathon to recruit start-ups for CERN)

“Aircision’s competitive advantage is adapting laser technology to create a more intense, more focused technique for transmitting a 10 gigabits-per-second signal optically through air”, says Aircision CTO John Reid. “Our system is way more resistant to atmospheric effects than existing FSO technologies”, says Luis Oliveira, Aircision’s CEO. “In addition, our laser beam-based technology is cheaper and easier to implement than building expensive physical infrastructure. Our technology offers great potential for FSO in overcoming bottlenecks that have hindered its application in the past, such as limits on distance, latency and ‘5×9’ reliability.”

Eindhoven a test case for Dutch 5G

The City of Eindhoven recently announced that it will begin testing 5G networks in the second half of the year, with VodafoneZiggo and Ericsson. The High Tech Campus Eindhoven, PSV and Effenaar are participants in this test phase.

(See also: City of Eindhoven starts 5G projects with Vodafone, Ericsson and local partners)

“We’re not only rolling out the first 5G network in Eindhoven, but we’re also creating a key piece of technology crucial to bringing high-bandwidth communications to rural areas around the globe”, adds HighTechXL CEO Guus Frericks. “In addition, FSO can be a permanent solution for remote areas of the world where building out fibre optics networks is too expensive. Taking part in this 5G project is just a start”.

(See also: Why deep tech is an unfair advantage for start-up city Eindhoven)

“We are really excited to facilitate this FSO-based 5G test project with our partners on the High Tech Campus Eindhoven”, says J.W. Neggers, Director of High Tech Campus Eindhoven. “Many technology breakthroughs in the last decades have been created on this campus and we will continue to do so in the future.

 

City of Eindhoven starts 5G projects with Vodafone, Ericsson and local partners: “for business and society”

5G Eindhoven Vodafone Ziggo

The ambulance service in the city, extra fun for the supporters of the Philips stadium, autonomous flying drones, rehabilitation projects on the Herdgang, entertainment in the Effenaar and all kinds of experiments for startups and SMEs on the High Tech Campus: all this needs to get off the ground better with a 5G 3.5 GigaHertz connection. And if you’re in Eindhoven, you might be lucky enough to be one of the first to enjoy it: residents, students, startups and companies can use 5G in full at a number of test locations to make the city better. To this end, the Radiocommunications Agency of the Ministry of Economic Affairs has allocated temporary frequency space.

The focus will be on new applications made possible by 5G. Also, the newest devices on 3.5 GHz can then be tested. The municipality of Eindhoven, telecom company VodafoneZiggo and network partner Ericsson have joined forces to achieve this with a letter of intent. A number of local partners, including Philips, PSV, the GGD, High Tech Campus and LUMO Labs, will work on the new possibilities. Alderman Stijn Steenbakkers says the initiative will help business as well as society in Eindhoven.

“You could say that in Eindhoven, we will immediately come up with the solutions they will soon be working with in America.”

5G – the long-awaited successor to 4G – enables data to be generated faster, in higher volumes, via more users at the same time and more reliably than is the case with 4G. For Eindhoven, participation in this agreement is mainly related to the societal interest, says alderman Stijn Steenbakkers: “As a high-tech city, we are convinced that 5G technology can make a valuable contribution to our society. For us as a municipality, the welfare of our inhabitants is always paramount. We, therefore, ask parties to use independent research, make transparent measurements and share information for local residents to pay attention to questions and concerns about possible health or spatial effects.”

Initially, the experiment focuses on four projects:

  • Philips, the GGD, the Safety region, the Catharina hospital and the TU/e are partnering in a trial on acute care in ambulances. Thanks to the more stable connections, ‘remote assistance’ for diagnosis and preparation for treatment would be provided more quickly than at present during the journey of an ambulance.
  • On the High Tech Campus, there will be both a production facility and offices. SMEs, but also start-ups connected to the accelerator of LumoLabs can make a test environment of this,
  • In the PSV stadium, 5G should provide more experience among the supporters, for example by using 360-degree cameras to show the achievements of the footballers from a self-chosen field of view. A supporter is then virtually in the front row or even next to the players in the dug-out, from any place on earth. PSV will also use 5G on the Herdgang to promote the rehabilitation trajectories of the players,
  • Finally, in ‘Smart Venue’ de Effenaar the community – also remotely – can benefit from the new network during concerts, for example by adding a digital layer with extra information. This also includes educational opportunities during the hours when there are no events.

At the High Tech Campus, LUMO Labs, the ‘early phase’ investor and accelerator based in Eindhoven and Los Angeles, will play a stimulating role in guiding startups and student initiatives. “We select ‘sustainable city’ propositions from startups and student initiatives and have them tested on the 5G network,” says owner Andy Lurling. “We coach the teams and founders on the entrepreneurial aspects of their plans to help them grow into successful global impact organizations.” Startups from California have already come to the initiative. Lurling: “You can say that in Eindhoven, we will immediately come up with the solutions that they will soon be working with in America.”

Huawei

The China-based telecom and hardware company Huawei is also making efforts all over the world to sell their advanced 5G expertise. This is causing resistance in various places, partly because of an alleged risk of Chinese espionage. Alderman Steenbakkers does not say if Huawei has been at the negotiating table in Eindhoven, but he does state that he is happy with Vodafone and Ericsson as reliable partners. “The Dutch public interest and that of the individual citizen are essential. Now we have been able to fully apply the well-known guiding principles of Eindhoven when it comes to data management. This means, among other things, that privacy is guaranteed and that we pay all necessary attention to health issues.

Learn more about Eindhoven’s data policy here. (Dutch)

Ajax-PSV in hologram

The signing of the 5G declaration of intent took place today at the High Tech Campus through a virtual meeting of general directors Edwin van der Sar of Ajax and Toon Gerbrands of PSV. From Amsterdam, Van der Sar was present as a hologram in Eindhoven to wish his opponent success for the top game Ajax-PSV this weekend.

European Championships are also testing ground for 5G research

5G, Sendemast

After LTE (Long-Term Evolution, high-speed wireless communication for mobile devices and data terminals based on 4G), scientists are already working on the fifth generation of mobile radio, 5G. “In the fifth generation, however, we are no longer talking about a pure mobile radio system, but about a universal communication system, as this system is designed to allow certain things to be networked with each other, such as Industry 4.0,” explains Thomas Schierbaum from IRT, the joint research centre of the public broadcasters in Germany, Austria and Switzerland.


Read also: Smoothly from 4G to 6G, thanks to Maxwaves


IRT is working hard to further develop these wireless communication technologies for the broadcast sector. “We have already contributed to the standardization of 5G broadcasting requirements last year with several partners such as EBU (European Broadcasting Union), RAI from Italy and BBC from the UK,” says Schierbaum. “We see 5G as the future network standard over which media such as linear television can be transmitted very well. It can also be linked to non-linear offers in a network.” To make this possible, however, certain criteria, such as a broadcast mode, must be introduced.

“In contrast to conventional mobile radio, in which a device must always be connected to a transmitter mast, radio transmission to hundreds or thousands of devices takes place in a transmitter cell”, says Thomas Schierbaum. “We are now setting the standard for broadcasting to all devices. That means you can use a smartphone, tablet or TV set with this network standard and the number of devices in this network is completely open.” Another important criterion is that reception works without a SIM card, as public access to radio must be possible.

First 5G tests are running

IRT and Nokia are running an eMBMS single frequency network using a combination of unicast and broadcast features, both of which will be included in 5G to deliver TV broadcasts. This means that the same signal can be received simultaneously on both stationary TV sets and mobile terminals. “We are now testing these functionalities piece by piece in a very large network of stations with one station in Freimann, one in Ismaning and one in the broadcasting centre. That’s 400 square kilometers we’re testing radio signals on.”

For TV viewers, 5G is still a dream of the future, because currently only researchers can receive the signals with special equipment, which are only available as prototypes. It will be several years before the technology is ready for widespread use. “We are currently setting up a large-scale test on the Wendelstein transmitter, which is scheduled to go into operation next spring. Then you would be able to supply a large area from a television tower with high transmission power.” Schierbaum estimates that it could be 2025 before a normal user could benefit from this. “We may sometimes be a bit brash and say ‘technically’ it would be possible”, he admits, because regulation and business models will be at least as important. “It is not yet possible to say whether broadcasting will set up this network, whether it will be operated by a third party, whether mobile phone providers will make capacities available, for example. All this has yet to be clarified.”

5G is currently being tested at the European Championships 2018 in Glasgow and Berlin (2-12 August), at test sites in Munich and the Aosta Valley. The test shows the possibilities of combining linear and non-linear content on stationary and mobile devices.